Communication (Definition according to Luhmann)
Depending on Luhmann media was an assumption for communication, but on the other hand they weren't a part of the communication itself. Another point would be that there are, depending on Luhmann, three fundamental problems, that are connected to each other, which will hinder the come off of communication. Beside these obstacles communication is permanently present and around us, but to achieve this state there has to be particular media, which can transform improbable communication into probable communication.
"Process of Communication"
The process of communication by Niklas Luhmann :
Communication is the operation, which (re-)produces social systems, it is the central lastelement (specific operation) for the definition and the retention of society. A change of communicative possibilities by a new medium also changes society.
Communication is a synthesis of three components: message, information and understanding: communication comes into being, when its understood that an information is imparted.
In the social dimension these components are ascribed to at least two abstracted persom. Person a (= ego), who understands, and person b (= alter), who imparts. The imparted information can't be identical to the understood information.
A process of communication comes into being, if the preceding communication is followed by an succeding communication.
By these communicative connections constitutes meaning to every process of communication, by selecting one certain connection to all possible connections. Communication needs a spreading medium like speech and writing.
Contributer: Markus Reuter for "Pedagogical Media Theory"
3 Forms of Improbability
- First Form of Improbability - Understanding
The first form of improbability is the success to communicate Information about something understandable and reasonable to someone, which lays outside of the cognition. The answer to this is "language".
"The medium, which is enhancing the understanding of communication far beside the observable, is language."
- Second Form of Improbability - Achievement
The second form of improbability is the success to release the communication from its terms of speech, its interaction between attendee and from its attachment to memory. The answer to this is "dispersal media".
"Dispersal media, namely font, printing, electronically media respectively radio communication was getting developed based on language.[...]The achievement of this is the immense expansion of range for the communication process."
- Third Form of Improbability - Success
The third form of improbability is the success to motivate, to access the communication proposal. The answer to this is "symbolically generalized communication media or success media".
"Important examples are: truth, love, estate/money, force/authorization, sometimes belief, art and core values. It is most important to condition the selection of communication, so that they can act at the same time as motivation."
3 Forms of Communication
- First Form of Commmunication - Language
The language, which is imperative for every community, from the oral to the global community, is forming the foundation of communication. Without language it would be impossible, to disassociate the three forms of improbability, understanding, achievement and success, as far as possible. In the comprehension of Luhmann, language is making sure that parties of two or several parties are understanding each other and is consequently responsible for constitutive communication.
- Second Form of Commmunication - Dispersal media (font, printing, electronically media respectively radio communication)
Luhmann defines dispersal media, which is imperative for every community, from the ancient civilization to the global community, as media, which is freezing/conserving information in some manner. With the appearance of lettering it was possible to distribute informations and it became possible to communicate with the community. But beside the propagation of data and informations for Luhmann, another aspect went into the middle of attention, it was getting possible to store data and informations of any kind.
- Third Form of Commmunication - Symbolically generalized communication media or success media (truth, love, estate/money, force/authorization, belief, art, core values)
After the language alleviated the understanding of communication and dispersal media alleviated the achievement of getting them, there was one thing left, the demand of particular media which could made the succeed of communication probable.
The third form of media could also be named as symbolically generalized media, because in it the goal of communication actually will be achieved. -- "Die dritte Art von Medien kann man als symbolisch generalisierte Kommunikationsmedien bezeichnen, weil sich in Ihnen das Ziel der Kommunikation erst eigentlich erfüllt."
Those media are reflecting the different kinds of social scopes and because of the adoption of them the success of communication could be achieved on different layers. It is more supposable to obey an instruction by an supervisor as to obey an instruction by an subordinate. It is more supposable that you will here the appeal by someone you love as someone you don't even know. However, the succeed of those media is strictly associated to the invention of an script which could be used in general. The economy, the policy and the religion are for example systems, which are build upon the symbolically generalized media and which of course couldn't arised in such a manner without the use of dispersal media.